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Gall stone vs kidney stone

It is normal to sometimes get things mixed up especially when they seem to share some similarities such as gall stone and kidney stone, chronic acid reflux and ulcer but we would be focusing on these most common two diseases, “gall stone and kidney stones”.

  1. So many people actually have gall stone but would mistake it for kidney stone. Well, worry less if you probably fall into this category. This article would help enlighten you more on the differences of both types of stones.

Gall stones or kidney stones are two conditions that could cause excruciating pains to any individual, but some people really don’t know they are both different preventive measures and treatment approaches. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF KIDNEY STONES AND GALLSTONES

  • Gall stones are cholesterol deposits that resemble pebbles, WHILE kidney stones are cement-like and are made of dissolved minerals in the urine 
  • Gallstones are found inside the gall bladder WHILE kidney stones develop in the urinary tract 

SIMILARITIES AND SYMPTOMS OF KIDNEY STONES AND GALLSTONES

  • Kidney stones are small as sand grains and grow larger causing pain when you try to urinate WHILE gall stones can be as small as sand grains too and can grow as big as a golf ball 
  • Kidney stones comes with symptoms like blood in the urine, painful urination, inability to urinate frequently WHILE gall stones come mostly with nausea, vomiting, fever and sweating.

      CAUSES KIDNEY STONES AND GALLSTONES

  • For kidney stones, foods that are high in sodium, animal protein can increase the risk of developing kidney stones. Foods like processed meat, canned/ tinned foods etc
  • WHILE a diet high in fat and cholesterol can contribute to gallstone formation. 

 RISK FACTORS OF KIDNEY STONES AND GALL STONES 

  • People that have a family history of kidney stones and who are middle aged adults are at higher risks of developing kidney stones 
  • WHILE adults over 40, especially women and those who are overweight are at higher risks of developing gallstones

TREATMENT/MANAGEMENT OF KIDNEY STONES AND GALL STONES

  • Kidney stones can be treated by removing the stones or adhering to a diet that controls the intake of the type of stone formed 
    • Gallstones can be treated by removing the gall bladder unlike kidney stones also and a diet with controlled cholesterol and low fat. 

PREVENTION OF GALLSTONES AND KIDNEYSTONES 

  • To prevent gallstones, while trying to lose weight, make sure to do it slowly and correctly. Don’t skip meals and exercise regularly. 
  • Careful with the use of birth control pills to prevent gallstones
  • Kidney stones can be prevented in a very easy way: just drink lots of water and maintain a healthy fluid level every day 

If you’re experiencing any of these symptoms mentioned above, it is very important you contact health care givers and professionals so they could help treat whichever stone it may be.

SOURCES:

Singh VK, Singh V, Rai AK, Thakur SN, Rai PK, Singh JP

Appl Opt. 2008 Nov 1; 47(31):G38-47.

[PubMed] [Ref list]

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General Research

CAN THE KETO DIET IMPROVE PCOS SYMPTOMS?

In all indications, diet changes and physical activity are lifestyle changes that are recommended for women with polycystic ovary syndrome, but some investigators have evaluated the effects of a ketogenic diet on some selected population of patients.
With this write up, we will see the outcome of the intervention.

 

According to a new study findings in the International

Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, the ketogenic diet showed great promise as adjuvant treatment alongside pharmacological therapy in the treatment for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), especially for women classified as obese.

Some common comorbidities that comes with of PCOS includes insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity. When these conditions are not managed effectively, they could increase the risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome among women with the endocrine disorder.

In this study, seventeen women whose mean (SD) age was 28.5 (5.38) years (fertile age, according to the investigators) with PCOS and who were classified as obese (body mass index [BMI] > 25) were used; all were enrolled at the University Medical Service of Dietetic and Metabolic Diseases of the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of the University of Foggia, in Italy.
The most therapeutic and suitable prescription with evidence for women who were obese and had PCOS was lifestyle correction according to this study. “This is the first study on the effects of the ketogenic diet on PCOS.” This type of diet adopted included one with increased fat intake, reduced carbohydrate intake, and adequate protein. For this study, daily intakes were set at 600 kcal for calories, 1.1 to 1.2 g of protein per kilogram body weight, 30 g for carbohydrates, and 30 g for fats.

“Following a 45-day dietary protocol, baseline/first visit findings were compared with 45-day/final visit results for gynecological evaluation of oligo/amenorrhea status, nutritional status, body composition, biochemical measurements, and diet administration.

The baseline overall average total body weight was 81.5 (13.56) kg and the baseline BMI, 31.84 (5.85) kg/m2”.

There were decreases in the following measures:
• Average weight: 9.4 kg (P < .0001)
• Average BMI: 3.6 kg/m2 (P < .001)
• Waist circumference: 9.4 cm (P < .001)
• Hip circumference: 8.1 cm (P < .001)
• Fat mass: 7.90 kg (P < .001)
• Free fat mass: 1.41 kg (P < .05)
• Muscle mass: 1.32 kg (P < .05)
• Total body water: 1.32 kg (P < .01)
• Basal metabolic rate: 67 kcal (P < .001)

There was improvements in several of the metabolic parameters (all P < .001) as shown below:
• Mean blood and urinary concentrations of ketones rose to 1.7 (0.58) mmol/L and 83 (54.34) mg/dL, respectively, from zero at baseline for both
• Mean blood glucose decreased 10.07 mg/dL
• Blood insulin dropped 12.90 mcU/mL
• C-peptide blood concentration decreased 0.87 ng/mL
• Triglycerides fell to 70 mg/dL
• Total cholesterol dropped to 40 mg/dL
• LDL cholesterol dropped to 35 mg/dL
• HDL cholesterol rose to 15 md/dL

Changes in endocrine parameters, were recorded as:
• Luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased to 4.6 mIU/mL (P < .001)
• Free and total testosterone decreased to 0.17 and 7.34 ng/dL, respectively (P < .001)
• LH/follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio decreased to 1.32, from 2.72 at baseline (P < .01)
• FSH value increased to 1.46 mIU/mL (P < .05)
• Sex hormone binding globulins 12.43 nmol/L (P < .001)
• Positive correlations were seen between LH/FSH and weight, BMI, and fat mass
• Negative correlations were seen between LH/FSH and weight, BMI, and fat mass
• Positive correlations were seen between glycemia and LH and FSH
• Negative correlations were seen between LH/FSH and glycemia

For some patients, say about 5 of them, regular menstrual cycles reappeared “after years of amenorrhea,” while for the other 12 patients, there was restoration of regular menstruation—5 of whom when on to become pregnant naturally.

According to recorded results, using the ketogenic diet alongside medical intervention was effective in managing PCOS. So, by reducing the amount of carbohydrates and inducing therapeutic ketosis, PCOS patients can have a better life as the diseases is also influenced by lifestyle.

Even though this study came out positive, it is important to note that it is the first ever of its kind and further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of the ketogenic diet and its mechanism.

Reference
Cincione RI, Losavio F, Ciolli, et al. Effects of mixed of a ketogenic diet in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Environ Res Public Health. Published online November 27, 2021. doi:10.3390/ijerph182312490

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